complex silicate of sodium and aluminum with sulfur
Ultramarine Violet is a semi-transparent, dull purple to pale violet with low tinting strength. As a pigment, it is weak in most oil applications, but it performs better in water-based mediums, pastels, and chalks. It is generally the bluest of the violet pigments, although there can be significant differences in color across brands. It is not suitable for fresco work and does not mix well with yellows. Ultramarine Violet is a variant of Ultramarine Blue, and their pigment properties are identical.
Ultramarine Violet has excellent permanence and lightfastness.
Ultramarine Violet has no significant hazards.
Titanium White is the most brilliant of the white pigments. It is considered an all purpose oil color useful in all techniques and the best all around white. Its masstone is neither warm nor cool, placing it somewhere between Lead White and Zinc White. It is less prone to cracking and yellowing than Lead White, but it still yellows easily. Titanium White dries slowly in oil form, more slowly than Lead White but more quickly than Zinc White. It is opaque in oil and acrylic forms and semi-opaque in watercolor form. This pigment has good chemical stability, and its tinting strength is superior to both Lead White and Zinc White.
Titanium White has excellent permanence and lightfastness.
Titanium dioxide is highly stable and is regarded as completely non-toxic. Animal studies give no indiciation that it is absorbed biologically, even after long periods of exposure. The primary safety concern is with inhalation of fine pigment dust particl
Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, however mineral deposits that are economical to mine are less common. Titanium dioxide was first discovered in 1821, although it could not be mass produced until 1919. Widespread use of the pigment began in the 1940s. Since that time, it has become the most commonly used white pigment. The name comes from the Latin word Titan, the name for the elder brother of Kronos and ancestor of the Titans, and from the Greek word tito, meaning day or sun.