This Naphthol Red is yellowish, with a high tinting strength and average drying time. It produces warmer shades and tints.
This Naphthol Red has excellent lightfastness, though it is generally not considered adequate for exterior use.
Naphthol Reds are not considered toxic. They may cause eye, skin, or respiratory irritation. Contact with dry pigment should be avoided.
Naphthol pigments are actually dyes that are "laked" to form pigments. First developed by the German chemical company Hoechst A.G. before World War I, their use in artist paints began in the 1920s.
Titanium White is the most brilliant of the white pigments. It is considered an all purpose oil color useful in all techniques and the best all around white. Its masstone is neither warm nor cool, placing it somewhere between Lead White and Zinc White. It is less prone to cracking and yellowing than Lead White, but it still yellows easily. Titanium White dries slowly in oil form, more slowly than Lead White but more quickly than Zinc White. It is opaque in oil and acrylic forms and semi-opaque in watercolor form. This pigment has good chemical stability, and its tinting strength is superior to both Lead White and Zinc White.
Titanium White has excellent permanence and lightfastness.
Titanium dioxide is highly stable and is regarded as completely non-toxic. Animal studies give no indiciation that it is absorbed biologically, even after long periods of exposure. The primary safety concern is with inhalation of fine pigment dust particl
Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, however mineral deposits that are economical to mine are less common. Titanium dioxide was first discovered in 1821, although it could not be mass produced until 1919. Widespread use of the pigment began in the 1940s. Since that time, it has become the most commonly used white pigment. The name comes from the Latin word Titan, the name for the elder brother of Kronos and ancestor of the Titans, and from the Greek word tito, meaning day or sun.
Benzimidazolone Orange is a reddish orange pigment that can lose its intensity and become dull in tints. It has an average drying time.
Benzimidazolone Orange has excellent lightfastness and outstanding heat and solvent stability for a monoazo pigment.
Benzimidazolone Orange is not considered toxic.
The benzimidazolone group of pigments was developed and patented in 1960 by Hoechst A.G., a German chemical manufacturer that was a forerunner of the pharmaceutical company Aventis. Use of benzimidazolone pigments in the auto industry, especially Benzimidazolone Orange, became common in the 1980s because they were common replacements for lead chromate pigments, which were phased out during this period.