Titanium White is the most brilliant of the white pigments. It is considered an all purpose oil color useful in all techniques and the best all around white. Its masstone is neither warm nor cool, placing it somewhere between Lead White and Zinc White. It is less prone to cracking and yellowing than Lead White, but it still yellows easily. Titanium White dries slowly in oil form, more slowly than Lead White but more quickly than Zinc White. It is opaque in oil and acrylic forms and semi-opaque in watercolor form. This pigment has good chemical stability, and its tinting strength is superior to both Lead White and Zinc White.
Titanium White has excellent permanence and lightfastness.
Titanium dioxide is highly stable and is regarded as completely non-toxic. Animal studies give no indiciation that it is absorbed biologically, even after long periods of exposure. The primary safety concern is with inhalation of fine pigment dust particl
Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, however mineral deposits that are economical to mine are less common. Titanium dioxide was first discovered in 1821, although it could not be mass produced until 1919. Widespread use of the pigment began in the 1940s. Since that time, it has become the most commonly used white pigment. The name comes from the Latin word Titan, the name for the elder brother of Kronos and ancestor of the Titans, and from the Greek word tito, meaning day or sun.
PY155-Bisacetoacetarylide Yellow 155
Pigment Yellow PY155 is a greenish yellow with high tinting strength and good solvent resistance. It is often used as a replacement for chromium yellow.
Pigment Yellow PY155 has very good lightfastness, but some monoazo yellows have better weatherfastness. It may not be suitable for exterior applications. Grades with coarser particles have been reported to have much better weatherfastness.
Bisacetoacetarylide pigments are a subgroup of the disazo pigments. Although many have been described and patented, only a few are commercially available. Pigment Yellow PY155 is used in paints, plastics, printing inks, and industrial coatings.
bismuth orthovanadate or bismuth vanadium oxide
Bismuth Yellow is an intense, light value, semi-opaque yellow pigment with good tinting strength.
Bismuth Yellow has excellent lightfastness.
Bismuth orthovanadate is harmful if swallowed. It is irritating to the eyes, respiratory system, and skin. Exposure may cause conjunctivitis, rhinitis, and reversible irritation of the respiratory tract. More severe cases may cause bronchitis, bronchospas
Bismuth orthovanadate occurs naturally in several minerals. Although it was synthesized in the 1920s, it was not developed as a commercial pigment until the 1970s.