This color contains the following pigments:
Alizarin Crimson, the traditional cool counterpart to Cadmium Red, is a clear ruby-red with a maroon masstone and a bluish undertone. It is the artist's principal deep red pigment, is transparent, and has good tinting strength. It creates bright rosy pinks when mixed with white, a range of purples and violets when mixed with strong blues, can be slow drying when used with oils, and is compatible with all other pigments. Permanent Alizarin Crimson mixes well with Ultramarine in acrylic and watercolor form. Permanent Rose and Quinacridone Rose are possible alternatives on a watercolor palette. Alizarin Crimson is a popular glazing color.
Alizarin Crimson is considered fugitive or marginally lightfast, and the appropriateness of its use in the modern artist palette is a subject of debate. There are many concerns regarding its permanence, particularly when mixed with ochre, sienna, and umber, or when used thinly. It is the least permanent red commonly used by today’s artists. Modern synthetic preparations of Alizarin Crimson have better permanence and lightfastness that the original natural pigment, which was extracted from the madder plant. Quinacridone pigments have been used to create a modern hue that closely matches the original hue, but many artists object that the transparency and handling characteristics are not the same as for the original.
Alizarin Crimson can be slightly toxic if it comes into contact with skin and may cause some allergies. There is no significant acute toxicity.
The word alizarin comes from the Arabic word al-usara, meaning juice. The base ingredient of this pigment is the Madder plant (Rubia Tinctorum). It was used for dyes and inks among craftsmen in Ancient Persia, India, and Egypt as early as 1500 BC In 1804, George Field, an English dye maker, developed Madder Lake by binding madder to alum, a white powder. The German chemists Carl Grabe and Carl Liebermann produced the first synthetic variety of this pigment, most commonly known as Alizarin Crimson, in 1868. They used anthracene, which greatly improved the lightfastness. The Colour Index International designation PR83:1 has been used to identify this synthetic laked pigment.
Quinacridone Magenta is a semi-transparent and powerful bluish red with an impressive mixing range. It makes an excellent glazing color and is one of the bluest of the Quinacridone colors. The pigment's properties vary considerably, depending on how it is ground. Quinacridone pigments have relatively low tinting strength in general. For this reason, quinacridone colors are often expensive, because more pigment is required in the formulation.
Quinacridone Magenta offers very good lightfastness in most media, but some have argued that it is less lightfast in watercolor form. Although Quinacridone Magenta received only a passing grade of "fair" under ASTM test protocols, other test results have rated the pigment very good to excellent. Transparent reddish violet pigments in general have more problems with lightfastness than any other range of colors. PR122 is often used as the Magenta of CMYK (four color) process printing because it offers a better tradeoff between tinting strength and lightfastness than other pigments in its class.
Quinacridone Magenta has no acute hazards. Overexposure to quinacridone pigments may cause skin irritation. Quinicridone pigments contain a compound found to be a skin, eye, and respiratory irritant.
Quinacridone Magenta came from a red violet aniline dye that was first produced in 1858 by Natanson. It was called Magenta to commemorate a battle in Magenta, Italy. Over time, Magenta became the standard color name for a deep, violet red. Although quinacridone compounds became known in the late 19th century, methods of manufacturing so as to make them practical for use as commercial pigments did not begin until the 1950s. PR122 has become particularly popular in the formulation of Magenta for CMYK process printing.