This color contains the following pigments:
FeO or Fe2O3
Mars Black is an opaque black with a strong and cool masstone, a slightly warm tint, and a warm brown undertone. It is not as black as Ivory Black, but it dries more quickly and has three times the tinting strength. Mars Black is normally the only black available in acrylic form and that is safe to over paint. It can be used in all media without reservation and is widely used as an alternative to Lamp Black and Ivory Black.
Mars Black is very lightfast with excellent permanence.
Mars Black has no significant hazards and is the only major black pigment considered non-toxic.
The word Mars refers to the Roman god of iron and war. Mars Black was developed in the early 20th century from inorganic, synthetic iron oxide.
Phthalo Blues are pure and clean primary blues with superior covering power. They have a very high tinting strength and tend to overwhelm other pigments, but if color strength can be controlled, they make predictable mixed colors. In oil form, blues are very deep and slow drying. When mixed with other colors or if chlorine is added, Phthalo Blue quickly tends towards green. When using alone, mix with some white, as Phthalo Blue can be semi-transparent and almost black on its own. It is among the most compatible of modern colors with mineral colors and is considered more reliable than Prussian Blue, while sharing the same physical and color properties. Phthalo Blue is a good color for glazing.
Phthalo Blues are completely lightfast and stable and are permanent for all paint uses. They are currently used in inks, coatings, and many plastics due to their stability and are considered a standard pigment in printing ink and the packaging industry.
Phthalo Blues have no significant hazards, although those made before 1982 contained some PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls).
Developed by chemists using the trade name Monastral Blue, the organic blue dyestuff now known as Phthalo Blue was presented as a pigment in November 1935 in London. Its discovery was accidental. The dark color was observed in a kettle where a dye was being made from a British dyestuff plant. The demand for such a pigment came from commercial printers who wanted a cyan to replace Prussian Blue.