This color contains the following pigments:
beta-oxynaphthoic acid lake, strontium salt
Permanent Red is a common name used for the strontium salt of beta-oxynaphthoic acid (BONA) lake pigment PR:48. It is substantially bluer than other shades of PR:48. BONA pigment lakes tend to have high tinting strength, however the tinting strength of PR48:3 is only average.
Beta-oxynaphthoic acid (BONA) lake pigments are more lightfast than their beta-naphthol counterparts. Although their lightfastness makes them the pigment of choice in many applications, they may shift slightly in color or lose intensity under some conditions. Pigment PR48:3 has been reported to be the most lightfast of the BONA lake pigments.
Pigment Red PR48:3 is a lake pigment of beta-oxynaphtholic acid, a dye that resembles the common beta-Naphthol pigments. Beta-oxynaphthoic acid may have been synthesized as early as 1887. Commerical use of BONA lake pigments began in the 20th century. PR48:3 is used in printing, plastics, architectural paints, and industrial finishes.
Titanium White is the most brilliant of the white pigments. It is considered an all purpose oil color useful in all techniques and the best all around white. Its masstone is neither warm nor cool, placing it somewhere between Lead White and Zinc White. It is less prone to cracking and yellowing than Lead White, but it still yellows easily. Titanium White dries slowly in oil form, more slowly than Lead White but more quickly than Zinc White. It is opaque in oil and acrylic forms and semi-opaque in watercolor form. This pigment has good chemical stability, and its tinting strength is superior to both Lead White and Zinc White.
Titanium White has excellent permanence and lightfastness.
Titanium dioxide is highly stable and is regarded as completely non-toxic. Animal studies give no indiciation that it is absorbed biologically, even after long periods of exposure. The primary safety concern is with inhalation of fine pigment dust particl
Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, however mineral deposits that are economical to mine are less common. Titanium dioxide was first discovered in 1821, although it could not be mass produced until 1919. Widespread use of the pigment began in the 1940s. Since that time, it has become the most commonly used white pigment. The name comes from the Latin word Titan, the name for the elder brother of Kronos and ancestor of the Titans, and from the Greek word tito, meaning day or sun.