Mars Orange is a bright, extremely light red and appears almost pinkish in contrast with darker colors. It has incredible tinting strength and opacity. The synthetic form of Mars Orange is made from iron oxides and is cleaner, brighter, and denser than its ochre-based counterparts.
Mars Orange has excellent permanence and lightfastness.
Mars Orange has no significant hazards.
The word Mars refers to the Roman god of iron and war. Mars Orange has been manufactured as a pigment since the 17th century.
Titanium White is the most brilliant of the white pigments. It is considered an all purpose oil color useful in all techniques and the best all around white. Its masstone is neither warm nor cool, placing it somewhere between Lead White and Zinc White. It is less prone to cracking and yellowing than Lead White, but it still yellows easily. Titanium White dries slowly in oil form, more slowly than Lead White but more quickly than Zinc White. It is opaque in oil and acrylic forms and semi-opaque in watercolor form. This pigment has good chemical stability, and its tinting strength is superior to both Lead White and Zinc White.
Titanium White has excellent permanence and lightfastness.
Titanium dioxide is highly stable and is regarded as completely non-toxic. Animal studies give no indiciation that it is absorbed biologically, even after long periods of exposure. The primary safety concern is with inhalation of fine pigment dust particl
Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, however mineral deposits that are economical to mine are less common. Titanium dioxide was first discovered in 1821, although it could not be mass produced until 1919. Widespread use of the pigment began in the 1940s. Since that time, it has become the most commonly used white pigment. The name comes from the Latin word Titan, the name for the elder brother of Kronos and ancestor of the Titans, and from the Greek word tito, meaning day or sun.
cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide
CdS x CdSe
Cadmium Orange was the first true orange and was made by mixing Cadmium Yellow with Cadmium Red. It is a pure hue with excellent opacity and low toxicity compared with its predecessors. It also has very high hiding power. The greatest tinting strengths are possessed by the deeper shades. Only the highest grades contain pure Cadmium Orange without barium mixed in it. Cadmium pigments have been partially replaced by azo pigments, which are similar in lightfasness to the cadmium colors, cheaper, and non-toxic.
Cadmium Orange has excellent permanence, but like many cadmium pigments, it will fade in fresco or mural painting. The deeper varieties of this pigment are the most permanent. The paler varieties have been known to fade when exposed to sunlight.
Cadmium Orange is a known human carcinogen. It is extremely toxic if inhaled and slightly toxic if ingested.
Cadmiums get their names from the Latin word cadmia, meaning zinc ore calamine, and the Greek word kadmeia, meaning Cadmean earth, first found near Thebes, the city founded by the Phoenician prince Cadmus. Metallic cadmium was discovered in 1817 by Friedrich Strohmeyer. It was used sparingly after its discovery due to the scarcity of cadmium metal.