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Grumbacher Finest Artists' Watercolors are professional grade colors formulated with premium grades of pigments sourced throughout the world. Each of the 54 rich, fully pigmented colors in the line is designed to ensure fluid, even washes.
Color Swatches created using heavy application/diluted application and were applied on cold press watercolor paper (150 lb) material.
This Hansa yellow is a transparent yellow. It has great brightness and tinting strength and its drying time ranges from average to slow.
Hansa Yellow makes more intense tints and cleaner secondaries than Cadmium Yellows, especially when mixed with other organic or modern colors like Phthalo Blue and Green. Because they are more transparent, they have great value as glazing colors.
This Hansa Yellow has fair to good permanence, particularly in the lighter shades.
Hansa Yellow has no significant acute hazards, though its chronic hazards have not been well studied.
Hansa Yellows were first made in Germany just before WW1 from a series of synthetic dyestuffs called Pigment Yellow. They were intended to be a synthetic replacement for Cadmium Yellow.
Arylamide Yellow, Arylide, Arylide Yellow, Azo, Brilliant Yellow, Monoazo, Monolite Yellow, Permanent Yellow.
This Naphthol Red is yellowish, with a high tinting strength and average drying time. It produces warmer shades and tints.
This Naphthol Red has excellent lightfastness, though it is generally not considered adequate for exterior use.
Naphthol Reds are not considered toxic. They may cause eye, skin, or respiratory irritation. Contact with dry pigment should be avoided.
Naphthol pigments are actually dyes that are "laked" to form pigments. First developed by the German chemical company Hoechst A.G. before World War I, their use in artist paints began in the 1920s.
Naphthal, Naphthol Bordeaux, Naphthol Carbamide, Naphthol Carmine, Permanent Carmine, Permanent Red.
organic, naphthol AS
Pigment PR170 is a bright deep red with bluish undertones. It has an average drying time. It has two crystaline forms that differ significantly in opacity. The more transparent form (F5RK) tends to be more bluish and is less lightfast.
The lightfastness and weatherfastness of Pigment PR170 varies, depending on the application and the crystaline form. The opaque form (F3RK) has very good lightfastness, and is more weather resistant. The transparent form (F5RK) has lightfastness that is considered acceptable in pure applications, but it fades more in tints. Neither form is considered suitable for exterior use.
Naphthol pigments are actually dyes that are "laked" to form pigments. First developed by the German chemical company Hoechst A.G. before World War I, their use in artist paints began in the 1920s. Pigment Red PR170 is a Naphthol AS pigment, chemically related to the diarylide yellow pigments. The Naphthol AS pigments comprise a range of reds. They are used in plastics, textiles, and printing inks.
Naphthal, Naphthol Bordeaux, Naphthol Carbamide, Naphthol Carmine, Permanent Carmine, Naphthol Crimson, Permanent Red, Permanent Red F3RK (more opaque), Permanent Red F5RK (more transparent).
Quinacridone Red is a bright, clean red pigment with average drying time. Quinacridone pigments have relatively low tinting strength in general. For this reason, quinacridone colors are often expensive, because more pigment is required in the formulation.
Quinacridone Red has excellent permanence and lightfastness.
Quinacridone Red has no known acute hazards. Overexposure to quinacridone pigments may cause skin irritation. Quinicridone pigments contain a compound found to be a skin, eye, and respiratory irritant.
Although quinacridone compounds became known in the late 19th century, methods of manufacturing so as to make them practical for use as commercial pigments did not begin until the 1950s. Quinacridone pigments were first developed as coatings for the automotive industry, but were quickly adopted by artists.
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