This color contains the following pigments:
Benzimidazolone Carmine is a staining, dull red transparent pigment with high tinting strength. Its color is similar to, although somewhat darker than, Rose Madder, the natural source of the historic color Alizarin Crimson. Because it stains and tints much more strongly than natural Rose Madder, care is required to achieve the same effects.
Although it is not absolutely lightfast, Benzimidazolone Carmine has excellent lightfastness for a transparent red organic pigment, and as a result, it is often chosen as a more permanent pigment to replace Alizarin Crimson.
Benzimidazolone Carmine is not considered toxic.
The benzimidazolone group of pigments was developed and patented in 1960 by Hoechst A.G., a German chemical manufacturer that was a forerunner of the pharmaceutical company Aventis. They differ very widely in hue.
Titanium White is the most brilliant of the white pigments. It is considered an all purpose oil color useful in all techniques and the best all around white. Its masstone is neither warm nor cool, placing it somewhere between Lead White and Zinc White. It is less prone to cracking and yellowing than Lead White, but it still yellows easily. Titanium White dries slowly in oil form, more slowly than Lead White but more quickly than Zinc White. It is opaque in oil and acrylic forms and semi-opaque in watercolor form. This pigment has good chemical stability, and its tinting strength is superior to both Lead White and Zinc White.
Titanium White has excellent permanence and lightfastness.
Titanium dioxide is highly stable and is regarded as completely non-toxic. Animal studies give no indiciation that it is absorbed biologically, even after long periods of exposure. The primary safety concern is with inhalation of fine pigment dust particl
Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, however mineral deposits that are economical to mine are less common. Titanium dioxide was first discovered in 1821, although it could not be mass produced until 1919. Widespread use of the pigment began in the 1940s. Since that time, it has become the most commonly used white pigment. The name comes from the Latin word Titan, the name for the elder brother of Kronos and ancestor of the Titans, and from the Greek word tito, meaning day or sun.