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For sketching shape, composition, and color (on almost any surface) without messy palettes or mixing cups. Self-sealing--just peel off film before each use. Compatible colors, blendable. Sticks and sets.
Color Swatches created using full strength/50/50 and were applied on acrylic primed canvas (7 oz) material.
Titanium White is the most brilliant of the white pigments. It is considered an all purpose oil color useful in all techniques and the best all around white. Its masstone is neither warm nor cool, placing it somewhere between Lead White and Zinc White. It is less prone to cracking and yellowing than Lead White, but it still yellows easily. Titanium White dries slowly in oil form, more slowly than Lead White but more quickly than Zinc White. It is opaque in oil and acrylic forms and semi-opaque in watercolor form. This pigment has good chemical stability, and its tinting strength is superior to both Lead White and Zinc White.
Titanium White has excellent permanence and lightfastness.
Titanium dioxide is highly stable and is regarded as completely non-toxic. Animal studies give no indiciation that it is absorbed biologically, even after long periods of exposure. The primary safety concern is with inhalation of fine pigment dust particles. Titanium White, if inhaled in large amounts over the course of several years, may cause a benign pneumoconiosis that is visible on x-rays. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) considers fine titanium dioxide particles, if inhaled, to be a human carcinogen. The primary concern for artists is to avoid exposure to fine particulate dust from raw pigments.
Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, however mineral deposits that are economical to mine are less common. Titanium dioxide was first discovered in 1821, although it could not be mass produced until 1919. Widespread use of the pigment began in the 1940s. Since that time, it has become the most commonly used white pigment. The name comes from the Latin word Titan, the name for the elder brother of Kronos and ancestor of the Titans, and from the Greek word tito, meaning day or sun.
polychlorinated copper(II) phthalocyanine
C32H3Cl13CuN8 to C32HCl15CuN8 or C32H16CuN8Cl15 (PG7) or C32Br6Cl10CuN8 (PG36)
Phthalo Green is a transparent, cool, bright, high intensity color used in oil and acrylics. It comes from a Phthalocyanine Blue pigment where most of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced with chlorine, forming highly stable molecules. It has similar pigment properties and permanence to Phthalo Blue. It is slow drying and an excellent base color for mixing a range of bright greens. Phthalo Green is considered a very good alternative to Viridian because it is intense and mixes well and can be used to emphasize mineral colors in various tints. However, its tinting strength is very high, so it can overpower other colors. This pigment most closely resembles the discontinued and toxic Verdigris.
Phthalo Greens are completely lightfast and resistant to alkali, acids, solvents, heat, and ultraviolet radiation. They are currently used in inks, coatings, and many plastics due to their stability and are considered a standard pigment in printing ink and the packaging industry.
Phthalo Green has no significant hazards, but it contained PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) until 1982.
This bright blue-green was developed in 1935 and has been in use since 1938.
Bocour Green, Cyan Green, Intense Green, Monastral Green, Phthalocyanine Green, Rembrandt Green, Thalo Green, Winsor Green.
basic copper(II) carbonate
Azurite is an inexpensive greenish blue that is extremely stable under normal conditions and has chemical similarities to the green pigment malachite. Its greenish tints become more intense when mixed with oil. A gentle heating of Azurite produces the deeper blue pigments used in Japanese painting techniques.
Azurite has good permanence in oil and tempera media. It is unaffected by light, though it can darken if exposed to sulfur fumes.
Azurite is highly toxic if ingested and moderately toxic if inhaled.
Azurite gets its name from the Persian word lazhward, meaning blue. It has been in use since the 25th century BC, during the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt. Azurite was the most important pigment in European painting from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance, though it was often confused with Lapis Lazuli and overshadowed by Ultramarine. Azurite was the characteristic color of the sky in Renaissance paintings, but was replaced by Smalt in the 17th century and Prussian Blue in the 18th century. Because it is toxic, and because the hue can easily be produced using other pigments with desirable properties, use of azurite has become uncommon.
Azurro della Magna, Blue Bice, Blue Verditer, Bremen Blue, Chessylite, Mineral Blue, Mountain Blue.
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