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Cotman, from the makers of Winsor & Newton Professional Watercolors, offers a selection of good-quality watercolors. The Cotman line includes both traditional pigments and reliable synthetic colors that replace some of the more rare and expensive pigments used in the Professional Watercolors.
Color Swatches created using heavy application/diluted application and were applied on cold press watercolor paper (150 lb) material.
coprecipitated zinc sulphide and barium sulphate
Zn + BaSO4
Lithopone is a low tinting strength, semi-transparent white pigment that is often used as a filler or extender in other colors, or as the base for laked pigments.
Lithopone is absolutely permanent and lightfast.
Lithopone is not toxic.
Lithopone was discovered by G.F. de Doubet in 1850. It was developed commercially in the 1870s as a substitute or supplement for lead carbonate, to overcome the many shortcomings of white lead pigment, including toxicity, poor weathering, and darkening in the presence of sulfur compounds. It is used most often in interior paints and enamels. Its use as a white pigment has been superceeded in many applications by titanium dioxide.
complex silicate of sodium and aluminum with sulfur
Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4 or Na6-8Al6Si6O24S2-4
Ultramarine is the standard warm blue, a brilliant blue pigment that has the most purple and least green in its undertone. It has a moderate to high tinting strength and a beautiful transparency. Synthetic Ultramarine is not as vivid a blue as natural Ultramarine. Ultramarine dries slowly in oil and tends to produce clean, though granular, washes in watercolor. French Ultramarine mixes well with Alizarin colors in oil and watercolor form to create a range of purples and violets. It can dull when mixed with white in acrylic form, but mixes well with other colors. The shade varies based on manufacturer. Considered a great color for glazes, it is not suitable for frescoing.
Ultramarine has excellent permanence, although synthetic Ultramarine is not as permanent as natural Ultramarine. It may discolor if exposed to acid because of its sulfuric content.
Ultramarine has no significant hazards.
The name for this pigment comes from the Middle Latin ultra, meaning beyond, and mare, meaning sea, because it was imported from Asia to Europe by sea. It is a prominent component of lapis lazuli and was used on Asian temples starting in the 6th century. It was one of the most expensive pigments in 16th century Europe, worth twice its weight in gold, and so was used sparingly and when commissions were larger. Ultramarine is currently imitated by a process invented in France in 1826 by Jean Baptiste Guimet, making blue affordable to artists and extending the range of colors on their palettes.
Artificial Ultramarine, French Blue, French Ultramarine, Gmelin's Blue, Guimet’s Blue, Permanent Blue, Royal Blue, Synthetic Ultramarine. New Blue describes particular shades of Ultramarine. Armenian Blue and Lazuline Blue are names for genuine Lapiz Ultramarine. Sky Blue is a pale tone of Ultramarine.
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