This color contains the following pigments:
polybromopolychlorinated copper(II) phthalocyanine
C32H3Cl13CuN8 to C32HCl15CuN8 or C32H16CuN8Cl15 (PG7) or C32Br6Cl10CuN8 (PG36)
Phthalo Green is a transparent, cool, bright, high intensity color used in oil and acrylics. It comes from a Phthalocyanine Blue pigment where most of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced with chlorine, forming highly stable molecules. Pigment PG36 differs from PG7 in that a portion of the chlorine atoms are replaced with bromine atoms, which are reactively similar, but cause a yellow shift that is especially noticeable in mixtures. Phthalo Green has similar pigment properties and permanence to Phthalo Blue. It is slow drying and an excellent base color for mixing a range of bright greens. Phthalo Green is considered a very good alternative to Viridian because it is intense and mixes well and can be used to emphasize mineral colors in various tints. However, its tinting strength is very high, so it can overpower other colors. This pigment most closely resembles the discontinued and toxic Verdigris.
Phthalo Greens are completely lightfast and resistant to alkali, acids, solvents, heat, and ultraviolet radiation. They are currently used in inks, coatings, and many plastics due to their stability and are considered a standard pigment in printing ink and the packaging industry.
Phthalo Green has no significant hazards, but it contained PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) until 1982.
This bright blue-green was developed in 1935 and has been in use since 1938.
Benzidine Yellow GG
Pigment Yellow 17 is a somewhat greenish yellow that has very high tinting strength and good resistance to solvents.
Pigment Yellow 17 has good lightfastness if prepared using the proper procedures. Because procedures for preparing PY17 vary, artists may want to conduct their own lightfastness tests to verify that the manufacturer has selected quality pigment.
Benzidine dyes are not bioavailable. Although benzidine-based dyes can be reduced to their amine precursors in vivo, creating a compound that is carcinogenic, benzidine dyes are believed to be so insoluble in water that they are unlikely to be absorbed in
This Benzidine Yellow dye was first reported by Esitelty in 1949. Initiailly, it was reported to be less lightfast than yellow monoazo pigments, which limited its usefulness. A method for making Pigment Yellow 17 more permanent was patented in 1972 (United States Patent 3785843), and the improved dye became known as Permanent Yellow. Permanent Yellow 17 is widely used in printing inks, textile dyes, paints, plastics, and coatings.