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Winsor & Newton Professional Watercolors offer artists the widest and most balanced choice of pigments with the greatest possible permanence. These paints have brilliance, transparency, and purity of color unparalleled by any other watercolor.
Color Swatches created using heavy application/diluted application and were applied on cold press watercolor paper (150 lb) material.
cobalt(II) oxide + aluminum oxide
CoO + Al2O3
Cobalt blue is a semitransparent pigment with low to moderate tinting strength. When it dries, it appears lighter and less saturated. Pigment particles are large and grainy. Differences in how the pigment is ground and mixed lead to considerable differences in its performance among various manufacturers.
Cobalt blue is absolutely lightfast and extraordinarily stable. The stability of cobalt salts at high temperatures make them the standard for blues used in ceramics and glassware.
Cobalt salts are toxic. Avoid respiratory and skin contact. Soluble cobalt may cause irritation and allergic reaction through contact with skin. It is considered a possible carcinogen.
Since ancient times, smalt blue has been used to color glass and ceramics. Cobalt salts, which give smalt its characteristic blue color, were identified in the 18th century. Techniques for manufacturing Cobalt Blue, a chemically pure salt of cobalt and aluminum oxide, were developed in 1802.
hydrated iron, magnesium, aluminum and potassium silicates
Green earth is a natural pigment that varies from yellow and olive to blue-green in its composition and hues. It is semi-transparent, has low hiding power and tinting strength, muddies and darkens in oil, and is particularly good for tempera and fresco painting.
Green Earth has excellent permanence and lightfastness, although some varieties can be developed by light calcining. It is one of the most permanent pigments because Earths are not affected by sunlight or atmospheric conditions.
Green Earth has no significant hazards.
Terre verte is French for green earth. It was discovered in antiquity, and its use has been traced to the Ajanta caves in India and a variety of Roman sites, including Pompeii. Green Earth was very popular for underpainting flesh tones in medieval paintings because this green was the compliment to pink on the medieval color wheel. Its use declined after the Renaissance. The natural supplies of the pigment are mostly depleted, and manufacturers currently duplicate the hue using mineral bases like Viridian, iron oxide, or chromium oxide, or artificial ceramic colorants. Pigments sold under this name can also be the result of mixing Sienna and Phthalo Green.
Celadon Green, Celadonite. Green Bice, Holly Green, Stone Green, Terra Verte, Verdeterra, Verdetta, Veronese Green. Bohemian Earth is a high quality, clear, middle-green variety. Cyprus Green Earth, or Cyprian, is a high quality yellowish variety. Tyrolean and Verona Earth are high quality bluish varieties. Verona Brown is a calcinated variation of Green Earth. Burnt Green Earth is similar to Transparent Brown
Cr2O3 • 2 H2O or Cr2(OH3)
Viridian is the standard green and is stable, powerful, and cold with an emerald green undertone. It has a transparent hue, good tinting strength, a dark masstone that can be almost black at full strength, and a slow drying time in oil form. Viridian is commonly replaced by the darker, more saturated, and staining Phthalo Greens, but its properties make it a necessary part of the palette of an experienced landscape painter.
Viridian has excellent permanence, except in high-temperature work, and is highly valued as a glazing color.
Viridian is slightly toxic.
Viridian’s name comes from the Latin viridis, meaning green. The process for manufacturing Viridian, or Transparent Oxide of Chromium, was patented by Guignet in Paris in 1859. However, it had actually been discovered by Pannetier and Binet in 1838. Viridian replaced Verdigris, which was reactive and unstable, and Emerald Green, which was a poisonous copper aceto-arsenite used as a rat poison in the sewers of Paris.
Emerald Chromium Oxide, Emeraude Green, French Veronese Green, Guignet’s Green, Pannetier's Green, Permanent Green, Smaragd Green, Transparent Oxide of Chromium, Vert Emeraude. Casali's Green and Mittler's Green are varieties of Viridian. Viridian has historically been sold under the name Emerald Green, but they are currently considered to be and are marketed as two different pigments.
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