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Great American Art Works' has discovered new materials, techniques, and equipment they use to create uniquely excellent pastels. These handmade soft pastels are richly pigmented, and have superb brilliance of tone.
Color Swatches created using heavy to light application and were applied on 100 lb (163 gsm) drawing paper material.
Calcium carbonate, the mineral constituent of chalk, is a low tinting strength, inexpensive white pigment that is often used is a buffer and filler. Because of its low tinting strength, it is overwhelmed by other colors. It is used in gesso and other coatings to give the surface more tooth, a desirable characteristic for some painting techniques.
Calcium carbonate is lightfast. Like all carbonates, it reacts with strong acids
Calcium carbonate is completely non-toxic, and is used in many food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. However, excessive consumption is not recommended.
Naturally occuring chalk deposits have been mined since prehistoric times. Rocks and minerals that contain calcium carbonate include aragonite, calcite, vaterite, chalk, limestone. marble, and travertine. Calcium carbonate is the principle component of lime, used in many agricultural and industrial applications.
iron oxides with manganese silicates or dioxide
Fe2O3,MnO2 or Fe2O3 + MnO2 + nH2O + Si + Al2O3
Burnt Umber is a more intense reddish brown pigment that results from heating the clay pigment Raw Umber. It has medium to excellent tinting strength and high opacity, and it is quick drying in oil form. Burnt Umber is somewhat more transparent than Raw Umber. It has excellent color properties and can create a variety of subtle, clear tints when mixed with white. It can tend towards chalkiness in dark mixes in oil form, but overall it mixes well with other colors. To create a black color in oil form, mix Burnt Umber with Phthalo Blue or Ultramarine. To achieve a similar color in watercolor form, mix it with Ultramarine or Payne's Gray.
Burnt Umber has good permanence.
Burnt Umber itself is considered non-toxic. If contaminated by manganese compounds, it may be highly toxic if inhaled and moderately toxic if ingested.
This pigment gets its name from the Latin word umbra, meaning shadow or shade. Its full name is listed as terra di ombra, meaning earth of shadow/shade, due to its original extraction from the area of Umbria, Italy. It has been used as a pigment since prehistoric times. Currently, the finest umber comes from Cyprus.
Chestnut Brown, Euchrome, Jacaranda Brown, Mars Brown, Mineral Brown, Raw Brown, Spanish Brown, Van Dyke Umber. Cyprus Umber, Turkey Brown, and Turkey Umber are the best quality umbers.
ZnO + Fe203 + Cr2O3
Zinc Iron Chromite Brown is a dark reddish brown pigment that is opaque and staining.
Zinc Iron Chromite Brown is exceptionally lightfast, heat resistant, weather resistant, and durable.
Zinc Iron Chromite Brown has not been identified as hazardous, but it is likely to contain impurities that are irritating to the skin or lungs. Pigment from natural ores may contain traces of heavy metals.
Because of its exceptional durability and heat resistance, Zinc Iron Chromite is used as a brown pigment in ceramics.
Shepherd Brown 12
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