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Sennelier Oil Pastels (Pastels à l'Huile), manufactured in Paris, are made with carefully selected mineral and organic pigments, mixed with a specially formulated non-drying binder, and combined with the finest quality wax.
Color Swatches created using heavy to light application and were applied on 100 lb (163 gsm) drawing paper material.
manganese ammonium pyrophosphate
(NH4)2Mn2(P2O7)2 - Mn3(PO4)2 * 3H2O or H4O7P2H3NMn
Manganese Violet is a semi-transparent, bluish-violet pigment with a discrete opacity and low tinting strength. It is the reddest of the violets, and it covers and dries well in oil and tempera. It also performs well in pastel, encaustic, and watercolor. Manganese Violet is not well suited for fresco or acrylic painting. There can be significant differences in color across brands. It shares similar properties with bluish shades of Cobalt Violet.
Manganese Violet has excellent permanence and lightfastness, and it is one of the most lightfast, balanced violets in watercolor form.
Manganese Violet is highly toxic if inhaled and moderately toxic if ingested.
This pigment was developed in 1868 by E. Leykauf to replace the more expensive Cobalt Violet. It was not offered as an artists’ pigment until 1890.
Burgandy Violet, Mineral Violet, Nürnberg Violet, Permanent Violet.
Quinacridone Magenta is a semi-transparent and powerful bluish red with an impressive mixing range. It makes an excellent glazing color and is one of the bluest of the Quinacridone colors. The pigment's properties vary considerably, depending on how it is ground. Quinacridone pigments have relatively low tinting strength in general. For this reason, quinacridone colors are often expensive, because more pigment is required in the formulation.
Quinacridone Magenta offers very good lightfastness in most media, but some have argued that it is less lightfast in watercolor form. Although Quinacridone Magenta received only a passing grade of "fair" under ASTM test protocols, other test results have rated the pigment very good to excellent. Transparent reddish violet pigments in general have more problems with lightfastness than any other range of colors. PR122 is often used as the Magenta of CMYK (four color) process printing because it offers a better tradeoff between tinting strength and lightfastness than other pigments in its class.
Quinacridone Magenta has no acute hazards. Overexposure to quinacridone pigments may cause skin irritation. Quinicridone pigments contain a compound found to be a skin, eye, and respiratory irritant.
Quinacridone Magenta came from a red violet aniline dye that was first produced in 1858 by Natanson. It was called Magenta to commemorate a battle in Magenta, Italy. Over time, Magenta became the standard color name for a deep, violet red. Although quinacridone compounds became known in the late 19th century, methods of manufacturing so as to make them practical for use as commercial pigments did not begin until the 1950s. PR122 has become particularly popular in the formulation of Magenta for CMYK process printing.
Acra Red, Quinacridone Violet (PV19), Thalo Red Rose.
Zinc White is the coolest white, and it has a cold, clean masstone and a slightly bluish tint. It has less hiding power and is more transparent than other whites. It dries slowly and is good for painting wet into wet and for glazing and scumbling. Zinc White is neither as opaque nor as heavy as Lead White, its covering power is not as good, and it takes much longer to dry. However, it does not blacken when exposed to sulfur in the air as Lead White does. It is very valuable for making tints with other colors. Unmixed Zinc White dries to a brittle and dry paint film that may crack over the years, so it is not good for frescoing. It is more transparent in acrylic form than Titanium White and is the most commonly used white with gouache. Chinese White is a version of Zinc White appropriate for opaque watercolor techniques.
Zinc White has great permanence and lightfastness.
Zinc White is moderately toxic if ingested and slightly toxic if inhaled.
Though historians are divided on who first isolated the element zinc, they agree that it was first suggested as a white pigment in 1782. Zinc White was accepted as a watercolor in 1834 and was called Chinese White due to the popularity of oriental porcelain in Europe at the time. Ten years later, a suitable oil form was produced. By the early 20th century, it had improved to the point where it was an acceptable alternative to Flake White.
Chinese White, French White, Permanent White, Silver White, Snow White, Zinc Oxide.
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