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Rembrandt, the world's most popular soft pastels,have an unsurpassed purity and intensity. Rembrandt Pastels are made from the best quality, finely ground, pure pigments in an extra-fine kaolin clay binder. They contain no hard bits or sharp edges.
Color Swatches created using heavy to light application and were applied on 100 lb (163 gsm) drawing paper material.
bismuth orthovanadate or bismuth vanadium oxide
Bismuth Yellow is an intense, light value, semi-opaque yellow pigment with good tinting strength.
Bismuth Yellow has excellent lightfastness.
Bismuth orthovanadate is harmful if swallowed. It is irritating to the eyes, respiratory system, and skin. Exposure may cause conjunctivitis, rhinitis, and reversible irritation of the respiratory tract. More severe cases may cause bronchitis, bronchospasms, and asthma like disease. It may cause polycythemia, red blood cell destruction and anemia, albuminuria and hematuria, gastrointestinal disorders, nervous complaints, and severe cough. However, bismuth vanadium oxide is completely insoluble in water. This limits absorption and biological activity. In waterbased paints, it must be suspended in a binder vehicle. Because of low absorption, such clinical symptons are primarily limited to cases of long-term occupational exposure.
Bismuth orthovanadate occurs naturally in several minerals. Although it was synthesized in the 1920s, it was not developed as a commercial pigment until the 1970s.
Permanent Lemon Yellow, Vanadium Yellow.
Lamp black is a very opaque, heavily staining black pigment that does not have much covering or tinting power. It is typically the most opaque black in watercolor form. Though a very pure black, it tends to muddy slightly in mixtures. Natural sources may be brownish or bluish in tone because of impurities. When used in oil paints, it is one of the slowest drying pigments, and should not be used in underpainting or applied in layers underneath other colors.
Lamp Black is very lightfast and absolutely permanent. It is used in all techniques in permanent painting.
Carbon itself is not considered hazardous, however other combustion products that are hazardous are often present as impurities when Lamp Black is produced from natural materials. For this reason, commercial preparations of the pigment should be considered slightly toxic. Avoid skin contact and inhalation. Where such impurities are present, Lamp Black is a possible human carcinogen.
Lamp Black is a carbon based black traditionally produced by collecting soot (known as lampblack) from oil lamps. It has been used as a pigment since prehistoric times. It is the black found in Egyptian murals and tomb decorations and was the most popular black for fresco painting until the development of Mars Black.
Carbon Black, Channel Black, Furnace Black, Oil Black, Vegetable Black. Flame Black is an impure version of Lamp Black. An alternate spelling is Lampblack, in which the first syllable is stressed and the two words are elided to form a closed compound.
Fe7(CN)18(H2O)x or C6FeN6H4N
Prussian Blue is a semi-transparent, deep cyan-blue with a greenish undertone and a very high tinting strength unequaled by most pigments. It is similar to Phthalo Blue unless mixed with white, when it gives up intensity and becomes smoky. It can behave erratically and less reliably in oil and watercolor form depending on its manufacture. For permanent painting Phthalo Blue is considered a more reliable choice.
Prussian Blue is lightfast and permanent in all techniques except for fresco. When mixed with Zinc White in watercolor or tempera form, it fades upon exposure to light and completely regains its chromatic strength in the dark. Modern manufacturing techniques have made this tendency less of an issue in recent years
Prussian Blue is moderately toxic if ingested. It will emit toxic hydrogen cyanide gas if heated, exposed to ultraviolet radiation, or treated with acid.
"The first of the modern pigments," Prussian Blue is the first artificial pigment with a known history. It was discovered by accident in 1704 by the Berlin color maker Heinrich Diesbach, who was trying to create a pigment with a red hue by mixing iron sulfate and potash. The potash Diesbach purchased from a local laboratory had been contaminated by animal oil and blood during previous experimentation. The resulting mixture yielded a very pale red that changed to purple and then deep blue when he tried to concentrate it. Since previous blue pigments came from lapis lazuli, an expensive stone, Diesbach’s discovery was extremely important for artists of the time.
Berlin Blue, Bronze Blue, Iron Blue, Paris Blue, Paste Blue. Celestial Blue, Monthier Blue and Soluble Blue are varieties of Prussian Blue. Blue Lake is a reduced or let-down variety of Prussian Blue. Chinese Blue, Milori Blue, and Steel Blue are the three highest grades of Prussian Blue.
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Material Safety Data Sheet
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