Made in Germany, Schmincke's Norma Professional Oil Colors are environmentally friendly in their formulation and production. The balanced selection of brilliant modern and traditional colors includes high-quality transparent and unique special colors.
This orangish yellow has been used in plastics and coatings.
Manufactured by Rockwood Pigments of the United Kingdom, its exact chemical formula has not been disclosed. It contains. titanium, tin, zinc, and antimony oxide.
cobalt(II) oxide + aluminum oxide
CoO + Al2O3
Cobalt blue is a semitransparent pigment with low to moderate tinting strength. When it dries, it appears lighter and less saturated. Pigment particles are large and grainy. Differences in how the pigment is ground and mixed lead to considerable differences in its performance among various manufacturers.
Cobalt blue is absolutely lightfast and extraordinarily stable. The stability of cobalt salts at high temperatures make them the standard for blues used in ceramics and glassware.
Cobalt salts are toxic. Avoid respiratory and skin contact. Soluble cobalt may cause irritation and allergic reaction through contact with skin. It is considered a possible carcinogen.
Since ancient times, smalt blue has been used to color glass and ceramics. Cobalt salts, which give smalt its characteristic blue color, were identified in the 18th century. Techniques for manufacturing Cobalt Blue, a chemically pure salt of cobalt and aluminum oxide, were developed in 1802.
CoO • ZnO
Cobalt Green is a pure, fairly opaque, moderately bright bluish-green with a low tinting strength and limited hiding power. It makes valuable grays and muted, minimalistic greens when mixed with other pigments. However, it can brown at full strength and fade when mixed with lead based whites. It is quick drying in oil form and is not widely used because its hue can easily be matched by mixing green and blue pigments with superior painting properties. It is currently not in wide use.
Cobalt Green is completely lightfast. Its permanence is excellent, so it can be used in all painting techniques.
Cobalt Green is moderately toxic if inhaled or ingested. It is slightly toxic if it comes into contact with skin.
Cobalt comes from the Middle High German word kobolt, an underground goblin, because miners thought cobalt harmed silver ores. In 1780, the Swedish chemist Sven Rinmann developed a process for making a compound of cobalt and zinc (zinc oxide). It was introduced as a pigment in 1835, but poor tinting strength and high cost kept it in limited use throughout the next centuries. It gained some popularity among 19th century landscape painters.
Green Smalt, Rinmann’s Green, Swedish Green, Zinc Green. Gellert Green is a similar variety, though it is made using a slightly different process.
Cr2O3 • 2 H2O or Cr2(OH3)
Viridian is the standard green and is stable, powerful, and cold with an emerald green undertone. It has a transparent hue, good tinting strength, a dark masstone that can be almost black at full strength, and a slow drying time in oil form. Viridian is commonly replaced by the darker, more saturated, and staining Phthalo Greens, but its properties make it a necessary part of the palette of an experienced landscape painter.
Viridian has excellent permanence, except in high-temperature work, and is highly valued as a glazing color.
Viridian is slightly toxic.
Viridian’s name comes from the Latin viridis, meaning green. The process for manufacturing Viridian, or Transparent Oxide of Chromium, was patented by Guignet in Paris in 1859. However, it had actually been discovered by Pannetier and Binet in 1838. Viridian replaced Verdigris, which was reactive and unstable, and Emerald Green, which was a poisonous copper aceto-arsenite used as a rat poison in the sewers of Paris.
Emerald Chromium Oxide, Emeraude Green, French Veronese Green, Guignet’s Green, Pannetier's Green, Permanent Green, Smaragd Green, Transparent Oxide of Chromium, Vert Emeraude. Casali's Green and Mittler's Green are varieties of Viridian. Viridian has historically been sold under the name Emerald Green, but they are currently considered to be and are marketed as two different pigments.
mixed metal oxide
Nickel Titanium Yellow is one of the cleanest and brightest of the inorganic pigments. It has a low tinting strength and average to slow drying time.
Nickel Titanium Yellow has excellent lightfastness and outstanding stability with regard to chemicals, weather, and heat. It is durable in exterior conditions.
Nickel Titanium Yellow is not considered toxic.
Nickel Titanium Yellow was developed in the 1960s.
Nickel Titanate Yellow, Nickel Yellow.
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