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Grumbacher Finest Artists' Watercolors are professional grade colors formulated with premium grades of pigments sourced throughout the world. Each of the 54 rich, fully pigmented colors in the line is designed to ensure fluid, even washes.
Color Swatches created using heavy application/diluted application and were applied on cold press watercolor paper (150 lb) material.
beta-oxynaphthoic acid lake, manganese salt
Permanent Red is a common name used for the manganese salt of beta-oxynaphthoic acid (BONA) lake pigment PR:48. It is more blue than other shades of PR:48, with the exception of PR48:2. BONA pigment lakes have high tinting strength.
Beta-oxynaphthoic acid (BONA) lake pigments are more lightfast than their beta-naphthol counterparts. Although their lightfastness makes them the pigment of choice in many applications, they may shift slightly in color or lose intensity under some conditions. Pigment PR48:4 is considered more lightfast and durable than other PR48 salts.
Beta-oxynaphthoic acid may have been synthesized as early as 1887. Commerical use of BONA lake pigments began in the 20th century. Pigment PR48:4 is used in packaging and plastics.
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