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M. Graham Artists' Watercolors are manufactured in small batches with pure honey, gum arabic, glycerine, and the finest pigments available. Each color's formula is individually developed and crafted to bring out the unique character of the pigment.
Color Swatches created using heavy application/diluted application and were applied on cold press watercolor paper (150 lb) material.
bismuth orthovanadate or bismuth vanadium oxide
Bismuth Yellow is an intense, light value, semi-opaque yellow pigment with good tinting strength.
Bismuth Yellow has excellent lightfastness.
Bismuth orthovanadate is harmful if swallowed. It is irritating to the eyes, respiratory system, and skin. Exposure may cause conjunctivitis, rhinitis, and reversible irritation of the respiratory tract. More severe cases may cause bronchitis, bronchospasms, and asthma like disease. It may cause polycythemia, red blood cell destruction and anemia, albuminuria and hematuria, gastrointestinal disorders, nervous complaints, and severe cough. However, bismuth vanadium oxide is completely insoluble in water. This limits absorption and biological activity. In waterbased paints, it must be suspended in a binder vehicle. Because of low absorption, such clinical symptons are primarily limited to cases of long-term occupational exposure.
Bismuth orthovanadate occurs naturally in several minerals. Although it was synthesized in the 1920s, it was not developed as a commercial pigment until the 1970s.
Permanent Lemon Yellow, Vanadium Yellow.
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