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Williamsburg Oil Paints source the best raw materials in the world. Each is carefully ground to enhance the beauty and luminosity specific to each pigment. These paints are uniquely hand-crafted and of the highest quality available.
Color Swatches created using heavy application/medium application/50% tint and were applied on acrylic primed canvas (7 oz) material.
This Hansa yellow is a transparent yellow. It has great brightness and tinting strength and its drying time ranges from average to slow.
Hansa Yellow makes more intense tints and cleaner secondaries than Cadmium Yellows, especially when mixed with other organic or modern colors like Phthalo Blue and Green. Because they are more transparent, they have great value as glazing colors.
This Hansa Yellow has fair to good permanence, particularly in the lighter shades.
Hansa Yellow has no significant acute hazards, though its chronic hazards have not been well studied.
Hansa Yellows were first made in Germany just before WW1 from a series of synthetic dyestuffs called Pigment Yellow. They were intended to be a synthetic replacement for Cadmium Yellow.
Arylamide Yellow, Arylide, Arylide Yellow, Azo, Brilliant Yellow, Monoazo, Monolite Yellow, Permanent Yellow.
Titanium White is the most brilliant of the white pigments. It is considered an all purpose oil color useful in all techniques and the best all around white. Its masstone is neither warm nor cool, placing it somewhere between Lead White and Zinc White. It is less prone to cracking and yellowing than Lead White, but it still yellows easily. Titanium White dries slowly in oil form, more slowly than Lead White but more quickly than Zinc White. It is opaque in oil and acrylic forms and semi-opaque in watercolor form. This pigment has good chemical stability, and its tinting strength is superior to both Lead White and Zinc White.
Titanium White has excellent permanence and lightfastness.
Titanium dioxide is highly stable and is regarded as completely non-toxic. Animal studies give no indiciation that it is absorbed biologically, even after long periods of exposure. The primary safety concern is with inhalation of fine pigment dust particles. Titanium White, if inhaled in large amounts over the course of several years, may cause a benign pneumoconiosis that is visible on x-rays. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) considers fine titanium dioxide particles, if inhaled, to be a human carcinogen. The primary concern for artists is to avoid exposure to fine particulate dust from raw pigments.
Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, however mineral deposits that are economical to mine are less common. Titanium dioxide was first discovered in 1821, although it could not be mass produced until 1919. Widespread use of the pigment began in the 1940s. Since that time, it has become the most commonly used white pigment. The name comes from the Latin word Titan, the name for the elder brother of Kronos and ancestor of the Titans, and from the Greek word tito, meaning day or sun.
Cr2O3 • 2 H2O or Cr2(OH3)
Viridian is the standard green and is stable, powerful, and cold with an emerald green undertone. It has a transparent hue, good tinting strength, a dark masstone that can be almost black at full strength, and a slow drying time in oil form. Viridian is commonly replaced by the darker, more saturated, and staining Phthalo Greens, but its properties make it a necessary part of the palette of an experienced landscape painter.
Viridian has excellent permanence, except in high-temperature work, and is highly valued as a glazing color.
Viridian is slightly toxic.
Viridian’s name comes from the Latin viridis, meaning green. The process for manufacturing Viridian, or Transparent Oxide of Chromium, was patented by Guignet in Paris in 1859. However, it had actually been discovered by Pannetier and Binet in 1838. Viridian replaced Verdigris, which was reactive and unstable, and Emerald Green, which was a poisonous copper aceto-arsenite used as a rat poison in the sewers of Paris.
Emerald Chromium Oxide, Emeraude Green, French Veronese Green, Guignet’s Green, Pannetier's Green, Permanent Green, Smaragd Green, Transparent Oxide of Chromium, Vert Emeraude. Casali's Green and Mittler's Green are varieties of Viridian. Viridian has historically been sold under the name Emerald Green, but they are currently considered to be and are marketed as two different pigments.
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