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Sennelier creates their extraordinarily luscious colors from the finest hand-ground pigments combined with pure, first-press, non-yellowing, safflower oils. They produce an outstanding collection of oils distinguished by a "satin" finish and buttery feel.
Color Swatches created using heavy application/medium application/50% tint and were applied on acrylic primed canvas (7 oz) material.
manganese ammonium pyrophosphate
(NH4)2Mn2(P2O7)2 - Mn3(PO4)2 * 3H2O or H4O7P2H3NMn
Manganese Violet is a semi-transparent, bluish-violet pigment with a discrete opacity and low tinting strength. It is the reddest of the violets, and it covers and dries well in oil and tempera. It also performs well in pastel, encaustic, and watercolor. Manganese Violet is not well suited for fresco or acrylic painting. There can be significant differences in color across brands. It shares similar properties with bluish shades of Cobalt Violet.
Manganese Violet has excellent permanence and lightfastness, and it is one of the most lightfast, balanced violets in watercolor form.
Manganese Violet is highly toxic if inhaled and moderately toxic if ingested.
This pigment was developed in 1868 by E. Leykauf to replace the more expensive Cobalt Violet. It was not offered as an artists’ pigment until 1890.
Burgandy Violet, Mineral Violet, Nürnberg Violet, Permanent Violet.
Quinacridone Red is a bright, clean red pigment with average drying time. Quinacridone pigments have relatively low tinting strength in general. For this reason, quinacridone colors are often expensive, because more pigment is required in the formulation.
Quinacridone Red has excellent permanence and lightfastness.
Quinacridone Red has no known acute hazards. Overexposure to quinacridone pigments may cause skin irritation. Quinicridone pigments contain a compound found to be a skin, eye, and respiratory irritant.
Although quinacridone compounds became known in the late 19th century, methods of manufacturing so as to make them practical for use as commercial pigments did not begin until the 1950s. Quinacridone pigments were first developed as coatings for the automotive industry, but were quickly adopted by artists.
Titanium White is the most brilliant of the white pigments. It is considered an all purpose oil color useful in all techniques and the best all around white. Its masstone is neither warm nor cool, placing it somewhere between Lead White and Zinc White. It is less prone to cracking and yellowing than Lead White, but it still yellows easily. Titanium White dries slowly in oil form, more slowly than Lead White but more quickly than Zinc White. It is opaque in oil and acrylic forms and semi-opaque in watercolor form. This pigment has good chemical stability, and its tinting strength is superior to both Lead White and Zinc White.
Titanium White has excellent permanence and lightfastness.
Titanium dioxide is highly stable and is regarded as completely non-toxic. Animal studies give no indiciation that it is absorbed biologically, even after long periods of exposure. The primary safety concern is with inhalation of fine pigment dust particles. Titanium White, if inhaled in large amounts over the course of several years, may cause a benign pneumoconiosis that is visible on x-rays. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) considers fine titanium dioxide particles, if inhaled, to be a human carcinogen. The primary concern for artists is to avoid exposure to fine particulate dust from raw pigments.
Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, however mineral deposits that are economical to mine are less common. Titanium dioxide was first discovered in 1821, although it could not be mass produced until 1919. Widespread use of the pigment began in the 1940s. Since that time, it has become the most commonly used white pigment. The name comes from the Latin word Titan, the name for the elder brother of Kronos and ancestor of the Titans, and from the Greek word tito, meaning day or sun.
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Material Safety Data Sheet
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