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Developed by Holbein to offer the same high pigment quality and archival characteristics of Holbein's Artists' Oil line while allowing soap-and-water cleanup, Duo Aqua Oils are characterized by rich hues, high chroma, and excellent resistance to light.
Color Swatches created using heavy application/medium application/50% tint and were applied on acrylic primed canvas (7 oz) material.
complex silicate of sodium and aluminum with sulfur
Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4 or Na6-8Al6Si6O24S2-4
Ultramarine is the standard warm blue, a brilliant blue pigment that has the most purple and least green in its undertone. It has a moderate to high tinting strength and a beautiful transparency. Synthetic Ultramarine is not as vivid a blue as natural Ultramarine. Ultramarine dries slowly in oil and tends to produce clean, though granular, washes in watercolor. French Ultramarine mixes well with Alizarin colors in oil and watercolor form to create a range of purples and violets. It can dull when mixed with white in acrylic form, but mixes well with other colors. The shade varies based on manufacturer. Considered a great color for glazes, it is not suitable for frescoing.
Ultramarine has excellent permanence, although synthetic Ultramarine is not as permanent as natural Ultramarine. It may discolor if exposed to acid because of its sulfuric content.
Ultramarine has no significant hazards.
The name for this pigment comes from the Middle Latin ultra, meaning beyond, and mare, meaning sea, because it was imported from Asia to Europe by sea. It is a prominent component of lapis lazuli and was used on Asian temples starting in the 6th century. It was one of the most expensive pigments in 16th century Europe, worth twice its weight in gold, and so was used sparingly and when commissions were larger. Ultramarine is currently imitated by a process invented in France in 1826 by Jean Baptiste Guimet, making blue affordable to artists and extending the range of colors on their palettes.
Artificial Ultramarine, French Blue, French Ultramarine, Gmelin's Blue, Guimet’s Blue, Permanent Blue, Royal Blue, Synthetic Ultramarine. New Blue describes particular shades of Ultramarine. Armenian Blue and Lazuline Blue are names for genuine Lapiz Ultramarine. Sky Blue is a pale tone of Ultramarine.
organic, disazo condensation
Pigment PY95 is a semi-transparent reddish yellow pigment with high tinting strength, slightly less reddish in hue than the popular PY83.
For a yellow organic pigment, Disazo Condensation Yellow 95 has very good lightfastness, although its lightfastness is not as good as that of red disazo condensation pigments.
Disazo Condensation Yellow has no significant acute hazards. Chronic hazards have not been well studied.
Disazo Condensation Yellow PY95 is sometimes used in yellow inkjet printer inks and other high-grade, special purpose inks.
Cromophtal Yellow GR, Transparent Yellow.
Alizarin Crimson, the traditional cool counterpart to Cadmium Red, is a clear ruby-red with a maroon masstone and a bluish undertone. It is the artist's principal deep red pigment, is transparent, and has good tinting strength. It creates bright rosy pinks when mixed with white, a range of purples and violets when mixed with strong blues, can be slow drying when used with oils, and is compatible with all other pigments. Permanent Alizarin Crimson mixes well with Ultramarine in acrylic and watercolor form. Permanent Rose and Quinacridone Rose are possible alternatives on a watercolor palette. Alizarin Crimson is a popular glazing color.
Alizarin Crimson is considered fugitive or marginally lightfast, and the appropriateness of its use in the modern artist palette is a subject of debate. There are many concerns regarding its permanence, particularly when mixed with ochre, sienna, and umber, or when used thinly. It is the least permanent red commonly used by today’s artists. Modern synthetic preparations of Alizarin Crimson have better permanence and lightfastness that the original natural pigment, which was extracted from the madder plant. Quinacridone pigments have been used to create a modern hue that closely matches the original hue, but many artists object that the transparency and handling characteristics are not the same as for the original.
Alizarin Crimson can be slightly toxic if it comes into contact with skin and may cause some allergies. There is no significant acute toxicity.
The word alizarin comes from the Arabic word al-usara, meaning juice. The base ingredient of this pigment is the Madder plant (Rubia Tinctorum). It was used for dyes and inks among craftsmen in Ancient Persia, India, and Egypt as early as 1500 BC In 1804, George Field, an English dye maker, developed Madder Lake by binding madder to alum, a white powder. The German chemists Carl Grabe and Carl Liebermann produced the first synthetic variety of this pigment, most commonly known as Alizarin Crimson, in 1868. They used anthracene, which greatly improved the lightfastness. The Colour Index International designation PR83:1 has been used to identify this synthetic laked pigment.
Alizarin, Alizarin Carmine, Crimson Madder, Madder Lake. Rose Madder is a weak grade of Alizarin Crimson.
mix of organic pigments
Hooker’s Green is a bright olive-green often sold in a yellowish shade and a bluish shade. Its transparency can range from dull and dark to bright and light because lightness and chroma vary based on manufacturer. Modern varieties have a rich, dark tone that provides a great range when mixing. Hooker’s Green is particularly good for landscape painting when a larger range of foliage is required. Dioxazine Violet is the best mixing compliment in watercolor form.
The permanence and lightfastness of Hooker’s Green varies by brand. As a composite pigment historically mixed from Prussian Blue and Gamboge, its permanence is only fair. Modern replacements for Hooker's Green tend to be mixed with components that have more permanence, such as Phthalocyanine Green, Burnt Umber, and sometimes Hansa or Cobalt Yellow.
Hooker’s Green can be hazardous, but the toxicity level depends on the specific pigments used by each individual manufacturer or brand.
This pigment was originally an unreliable mix of Prussian or Iron Blue and Gamboge. Later, it became a more reliable mix of Cadmium Yellow and Phthalo Blue or Green. It was a staple green for 19th century landscape and botanical painters. Most modern Hooker’s Green paints are yellow greens with a hue angle around 140, or a mix of Phthalo Green and Burnt Umber.
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