Made from same pigments and linseed oil as Grumbacher Pre-Tested Oils. Can be intermixed with other oils or mediums. Thin and clean-up with water. Tubes. Also wooden Sketchbox Set, Sampler Set, and Intro Set.
Color Swatch created using heavy application/medium application/50% tint and was applied on acrylic primed canvas (7 oz) material.
hydrated iron oxide
α-FeO3+(OH) or Fe2O3 × MnO2
Raw Umber is a cool, transparent brown ranging from yellowish brown to greenish brown. It has surprisingly good tinting strength, a high level of opacity, mixes well with greens, and is quick drying in oil form. It has excellent color properties and can create a variety of subtle, clear tints when mixed with white. It grays when mixed with blue and white. Raw Umber can tend towards chalkiness in dark mixes in oil form.
Raw Umber has excellent permanence.
Raw Umber itself is considered non-toxic. If contaminated by manganese compounds, it may be highly toxic if inhaled and moderately toxic if ingested.
This pigment gets its name from the Latin word umbra, meaning shadow or shade. Its full name is listed as terra di ombra, meaning earth of shadow/shade, due to its original extraction from the area of Umbria, Italy. It has been used as a pigment since prehistoric times. Currently, the finest umber comes from Cyprus.
Chestnut Brown, Euchrome, Jacaranta Brown, Mars Brown, Raw Brown, Sicilian Brown. Cyprus Umber, Turkey Brown, and Turkey Umber are the best quality umbers.
cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide
CdS × CdSe
Cadmium Red is a bright, warm red that ranges in shade from orange-red to maroon and is available in light, medium, and dark versions. It is strong and opaque, with good tinting strength. Cadmium Red dries slowly. It grays down when mixed with white, mixes well with blues to create a range of browns, and mixes well with Cadmium Yellow to create a strong orange. It also works well in neutral mixes. Cadmium pigments have been partially replaced by azo pigments, which are similar in lightfastness to the cadmium colors, cheaper, and non-toxic. Hues vary by brand.
Cadmium Red is usually available in either a pure grade or a cadmium-barium mix. The cadmium-barium mix has the same permanence as pure Cadmium Red, but it has a lower tinting strength.
Cadmium Red is lightfast and permanent in most forms, but like many cadmium pigments, it will fade in fresco or mural painting. Its improved lightfastness has helped it to replace Vermilion on the artist’s palette.
Cadmium Red is a known human carcinogen. It is extremely toxic if inhaled and slightly toxic if ingested.
Cadmiums get their names from the Latin word cadmia meaning zinc ore calamine, and the Greek word kadmeia, meaning Cadmean earth, first found near Thebes, the city founded by the Phoenician prince Cadmus. Metallic cadmium was discovered in 1817 by Friedrich Strohmeyer, but Cadmium Red was not introduced until 1907 in Germany.
Cadmium Scarlet, Selenium Red.
cadmium zinc lithopone
CdSZn + BaSO4
Cadmium Yellow is brilliant, dense, and opaque, with good tinting strength and very high hiding power. It is the artist’s principal bright yellow and is available in light, medium, and dark shades. The deeper shades appear deep orange and have the greatest tinting strength. It is slow-drying in oil form and is used in both oil and watercolor form. It cannot be mixed with copper-based pigments. A clean Cadmium Orange is created when Cadmium Yellow is mixed with Cadmium Red. Hues vary by brand. Cadmium pigments have been partially replaced by azo pigments, which are similar in lightfastness to the cadmium colors, cheaper, and non-toxic.
Cadmium Yellow PY35:1 shares the properties of Cadmium Yellow PY35, except that it has lower tinting strength.
Cadmium zinc lithopone has excellent lightfastness. It shares the permanence of pure cadmium zinc sulfide (Cadmium Yellow PY35). All cadmium pigments have limited weather resistance, and are unsuitable for outdoor applications.
Cadmium Yellow is a known human carcinogen. It is extremely toxic if inhaled and slightly toxic if ingested. Barium sulfate is extremely insoluble in water, and thus is not biologically active. It is used medically as a contrast medium in radiological procedures.
Cadmium Yellow PY35:1 is cadmium yellow pigment that contains 15% or more barium sulfate. It is used to create a less expensive alternative to PY35.
Cadmium Yellow, Cadmium Yellow Light
coprecipitated zinc sulphide and barium sulphate
Zn + BaSO4
Lithopone is a low tinting strength, semi-transparent white pigment that is often used as a filler or extender in other colors, or as the base for laked pigments.
Lithopone is absolutely permanent and lightfast.
Lithopone is not toxic.
Lithopone was discovered by G.F. de Doubet in 1850. It was developed commercially in the 1870s as a substitute or supplement for lead carbonate, to overcome the many shortcomings of white lead pigment, including toxicity, poor weathering, and darkening in the presence of sulfur compounds. It is used most often in interior paints and enamels. Its use as a white pigment has been superceeded in many applications by titanium dioxide.
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