Robert Gamblin has sought out the finest grades of pigment available. Base is alkali refined linseed oil used as a binder for exceptional durability. Retains tinting strength, undertone, and texture. Base also makes a strong, flexible paint film.
Color Swatch created using heavy application/medium application/50% tint and was applied on acrylic primed canvas (7 oz) material.
iron(III)-oxide, partly hydrated
Brown Ochre provides artists with earthtones from cream to brown and is a dull, dark variety of Yellow Ochre. Its transparency varies widely from opaque shades to more transparent ones, which are valued for their use as glazes. It has good hiding power, produces a quick drying paint, and can be safely mixed with other pigments. The highest quality Brown Ochre comes from Cyprus, where it is yellow in its raw form and is roasted to get the deeper brown-red varieties that result when water is removed. (See Yellow Ochre, PY42/43.)
Brown Ochre has excellent permanence.
Brown Ochre is non-toxic.
Ochre comes from the Greek word ochros, meaning pale yellow. It has been used since prehistoric times, and evidence of its use has been found in some of the earliest known cave paintings in Lascaux, France. It has also been called Goethite, after the German philosopher and mineralogist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832).
Goethite, Yellow Ochre.
Cr2O3 • 2 H2O or Cr2(OH3)
Viridian is the standard green and is stable, powerful, and cold with an emerald green undertone. It has a transparent hue, good tinting strength, a dark masstone that can be almost black at full strength, and a slow drying time in oil form. Viridian is commonly replaced by the darker, more saturated, and staining Phthalo Greens, but its properties make it a necessary part of the palette of an experienced landscape painter.
Viridian has excellent permanence, except in high-temperature work, and is highly valued as a glazing color.
Viridian is slightly toxic.
Viridian’s name comes from the Latin viridis, meaning green. The process for manufacturing Viridian, or Transparent Oxide of Chromium, was patented by Guignet in Paris in 1859. However, it had actually been discovered by Pannetier and Binet in 1838. Viridian replaced Verdigris, which was reactive and unstable, and Emerald Green, which was a poisonous copper aceto-arsenite used as a rat poison in the sewers of Paris.
Emerald Chromium Oxide, Emeraude Green, French Veronese Green, Guignet’s Green, Pannetier's Green, Permanent Green, Smaragd Green, Transparent Oxide of Chromium, Vert Emeraude. Casali's Green and Mittler's Green are varieties of Viridian. Viridian has historically been sold under the name Emerald Green, but they are currently considered to be and are marketed as two different pigments.
charred animal bone
carbon + calcium phosphate
C + Ca3(PO4)2 or C × CaPO4
Ivory Black is a cool, semi-transparent blue-black with a slight brownish undertone and average tinting strength. It mixes well with any color, and creates a range of dull greens when mixed with yellow. It has good properties for use in oil, can be slow to dry in oil form, and should never be used in underpainting or frescoing. Ivory Black is denser than Lamp Black.
Ivory Black is very lightfast and has good permanence, though it is considered the least permanent of the major black pigments.
Ivory Black has no significant hazards.
Ivory Black is a carbon based black first named as Elephantium, and described in the 4th century BCE as produced by heating ivory scraps in clay pots to reduce the ivory or bone to charcoal. The deviation in names is because the more expensive varieties of this pigment were made by burning ivory, and the less expensive ones by burning animal bone. In the 19th century, the name Ivory Black was finally permitted to be applied to Carbon Black pigments made from bone. True Ivory Black is rare in modern times due to the protection of ivory, and the synthetic variety produced today was discovered in 1929. Bone Black is produced as an industrial pigment.
Animal Black, Blue Black, Bone Black. Paris Black is an inferior grade of Ivory Black. Incorrectly labeled as Frankfort Black.
® Gamblin is a registered trademark.