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All color making is done by hand, and processes are controlled by artists. Pigments are ground in stone rather than metal rollers.
Color Swatches created using heavy application/diluted application and were applied on cold press watercolor paper (150 lb) material.
Zinc White is the coolest white, and it has a cold, clean masstone and a slightly bluish tint. It has less hiding power and is more transparent than other whites. It dries slowly and is good for painting wet into wet and for glazing and scumbling. Zinc White is neither as opaque nor as heavy as Lead White, its covering power is not as good, and it takes much longer to dry. However, it does not blacken when exposed to sulfur in the air as Lead White does. It is very valuable for making tints with other colors. Unmixed Zinc White dries to a brittle and dry paint film that may crack over the years, so it is not good for frescoing. It is more transparent in acrylic form than Titanium White and is the most commonly used white with gouache. Chinese White is a version of Zinc White appropriate for opaque watercolor techniques.
Zinc White has great permanence and lightfastness.
Zinc White is moderately toxic if ingested and slightly toxic if inhaled.
Though historians are divided on who first isolated the element zinc, they agree that it was first suggested as a white pigment in 1782. Zinc White was accepted as a watercolor in 1834 and was called Chinese White due to the popularity of oriental porcelain in Europe at the time. Ten years later, a suitable oil form was produced. By the early 20th century, it had improved to the point where it was an acceptable alternative to Flake White.
Chinese White, French White, Permanent White, Silver White, Snow White, Zinc Oxide.
Diarylide Yellow is a semi-opaque, moderately staining, intense deep reddish yellow pigment with good tinting strength.
Diarylide Yellow 83 has very good lightfastness and permanence. However, it can fade in tints, so some artists do not consider it suitable as an artists’ color. Many other diarylide yellow pigments are reported to have fair to poor lightfastness, and some are completely fugitive. Diarylide Yellow 83 is reputed to be one of the most permanent of the entire group.
Diarylide Yellow has no significant acute hazards, but chronic hazards have not been well studied.
Diarylide Yellow comes from a family of azo pigments called Diarylide. These yellow hued pigments were developed around 1940 and are very important in printing inks.
Benzidine Yellow, Diazo Yellow.
Transparent Pyrrole Orange is a yellow-shade orange with optimum performance; high saturation and excellent durability, excellent bleed resistance, and intrinsic strength coupled with good opacity and moderate rheology. It is semi-opaque, less opaque than Cadmium Orange.
Transparent Pyrrole Orange has been demonstrated to have excellent stability and lightfastness in automotive applications.
The Australian government's Department of Health and Aging, reported in its Summary Report: NA/238 that "Irgazin DPP Orange 16AOA is likely to be of low oral and dermal toxicity in humans and to be non irritating or very slightly irritating to the eyes and skin. It may cause lung irritation due to its particle size."
Irgazin Orange was developed as a lead-free alternative opaque orange pigment. It is used in decorative, industrial, and automotive applications, often to color plastics and polymers.
Irgazin Orange, Bright Orange, Aritint Ornage, Unisphere DPP Orange, Dipyrrolopyrrol Orange
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